In France, one in four households owns almost two-thirds of housing

It is an unprecedented survey that will not fail to generate debate in a pre-electoral context. INSEE has focused on property in France, using data that has never been used.

First of all, it appears that France remains a country where owning your home is an end in itself. Thus, 58% of households own at least one dwelling, whether it is their main residence or another good. And the majority of owner households have only one dwelling.

11% of households own almost half of the housing stock

Still, a quarter of households living in France have several dwellings.

Half of them, or 13% of households, own two dwellings and they own almost a quarter of the housing stock for individuals. The remaining households, with three or more dwellings (11% of households), own almost half of the stock (46%).

In total, multi-owner households own two-thirds of the housing stock for individuals.

Unsurprisingly, the higher the standard of living, the more households own a higher number of dwellings. It is logical, the capacity to save is greater, it is then possible to mobilize income to build up real estate, whether it is a main residence, but also one or more second homes. Among this heritage, there are also rental investments. Thus, 58% of multi-owners are wealthy or rather wealthy, against 34% of all households.

Finally, there are intergenerational transmissions. They help to build up real estate assets. And INSEE is categorical: heirs and donees are better off than the average French. Enough to relaunch the debate on inequalities, and how to reduce them, in particular by increasing inheritance taxes.

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Nine out of ten multi-owner households are over 40

Multi-owner households are older and more often in couples than the general population. Regardless of gender, single people are under-represented in multi-owner households.

Multi-owner households are more concentrated among working people and retirees, between the ages of 50 and 69 (51%). Logical, whereas one builds up a heritage throughout one’s life.

On the other hand, after 70 years, the proportion drops: past a threshold, the more we advance in age and the more we tend to part with part of our real estate assets, for example by making donations to children, by selling the residence. secondary where we go less … After 70 years, we limit ourselves to the main residence for the old days.

The multi-owners are city dwellers

Another interesting indication: the main residence of those who have several dwellings is more frequently “in the crowns of city attraction areas”, assures INSEE. In other words, they live more frequently in metropolises, and in particular in the hearts of cities where real estate prices are the highest.

As such, the place of the capital and large cities is overwhelming: 41% of households owning 5 or more dwellings are residents of the Paris region or of a city of 700,000 inhabitants or more, ie 3 points more than all multi-owner households. Enough to feed the reflections on the fractures between cities and rural territories.

3.5% of households own 50% of rentals to individuals

As to who owns the rental accommodation, INSEE gives an unequivocal answer. It appears that here too, goods are concentrated in very few hands: households with at least 5 dwellings represent barely 3.5% of total households, but they alone hold 50% of rental properties from individuals. .

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They alone own 37% of the dwellings in the center of large cities. And here again, Paris occupies a special position: households that own 5 or more dwellings own 58% of the leased dwellings located in Paris, against 22% of the properties directly occupied by their owner.

Logic of wealth accumulation and tax optimization

This concentration responds to a logic of wealth accumulation. After having bought goods for his primary and secondary residence, one buys to rent to third parties.

And to do this, these households more often have recourse to legal and fiscal tools, which allow them to optimize their wealth. The most widespread is the real estate civil society, the SCI. Thus, 10% of multi-owner households own at least one home via this type of device. And it is very marked: the use of SCI increases with the standard of living. Thus, 41% of multi-owner households with an SCI are wealthy, against 25% for all multi-owners.

Barely a third of the 20% of the poorest households are owners

At the other end of the spectrum, however, it should come as no surprise to discover that, among the lowest 20% of people, 67% of households do not own a home.