What is acidification?
In the oil and gas extraction industry, acidification is a technique used to extend the life of an oil and gas well. The acidification process involves pumping acid into the well to dissolve the rocks lining the contours of the well.
Acidification increases production rates by creating channels in the rock through which oil and gas can flow into the reservoir. An added benefit of acidifying a well is that it can help dissolve any loose debris found in the well.
- Acidification is a technique used in oil and gas extraction that is designed to extend the life of an oil well.
- The acidification process involves pumping acid into the well to dissolve the rocks lining the contours of the well.
- The acidification process is less regulated than other oil and gas extraction techniques.
How acidification works
Acidification is often used to extract the remaining resources from oil wells that have reached the end of their productive life. In fact, because it is a relatively expensive process to employ, acidification will only be used once simpler methods, such as primary recovery techniques, have been fully utilized. If the price of oil is not high enough to justify the investment, a company can forego acidification and simply move to a younger well that can produce oil and gas at a lower price.
According to the American Petroleum Institute, the basic practice of acidifying has been widespread for nearly 120 years. In the 1930s, its popularity waned as a result of the damage it could cause to steel well liners. In the following years, however, corrosion inhibitor technologies were developed that effectively prevented this damage. This has led to acidification once again being widely used in the oil and gas service industry.
Acidification can be more useful than hydraulic fracturing in some situations. Hydraulic fracturing, also called hydraulic fracturing, is a process that creates channels in underground rock formations by injecting a mixture of water and hydraulic fracturing chemicals into the well at very high pressures. Unlike hydraulic fracturing, acidification does not require the same high pressure injections. Rather, acidification relies on the acidic substance to dissolve permeable sediments in the well.
In regions where underground shale deposits are not uniformly arranged, for example in regions with substantial tectonic activity, such as the state of California, acidification may be more effective in unlocking oil deposits than hydraulic fracturing. However, in some cases, both methods are used together. This process is known as acid fracking.
The types and concentrations of acids used in the acidification process are often not disclosed by the companies that manufacture them, although hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids are known to be used. Due to this ambiguity, it can be difficult to accurately assess the environmental and safety risks associated with the practice.
One area of particular concern is the potential impact that the practice of acidifying can have on groundwater in the surrounding area. Damage to well liners could lead to acidifying chemicals spilling into surrounding water sources, potentially threatening the local ecosystem or surrounding population centers.
Despite these potential risks, acidification faces fewer regulations than other oil and natural gas production techniques. Some states, like California, have passed laws to increase regulation over the practice and potentially impact people who are heavily invested in oil and gas exploration companies.